1. API: python-oracledb Module

1.1. Oracledb Methods

oracledb.__future__

Special object which contains attributes which control the behavior of python-oracledb, allowing for opting in for new features. No attributes are currently supported so all attributes will silently ignore being set and will always appear to have the value None.

Note

This method is an extension to the DB API definition.

oracledb.Binary(string)

Constructs an object holding a binary (long) string value.

oracledb.clientversion()

Returns the version of the client library being used as a 5-tuple. The five values are the major version, minor version, update number, patch number, and port update number.

Note

This function can only be called when python-oracledb is in Thick mode. See Enabling python-oracledb Thick mode.

If clientversion() is called when in python-oracledb Thin mode, that is, if oracledb.init_oracle_client() is not called first, then an exception will be thrown.

Note

This method is an extension to the DB API definition.

oracledb.connect(dsn=None, pool=None, conn_class=None, params=None, user=None, proxy_user=None, password=None, newpassword=None, wallet_password=None, access_token=None, host=None, port=1521, protocol='tcp', https_proxy=None, https_proxy_port=0, service_name=None, sid=None, server_type=None, cclass=None, purity=oracledb.PURITY_DEFAULT, expire_time=0, retry_count=0, retry_delay=0, tcp_connect_timeout=60.0, ssl_server_dn_match=True, ssl_server_cert_dn=None, wallet_location=None, events=False, externalauth=False, mode=oracledb.AUTH_MODE_DEFAULT, disable_oob=False, stmtcachesize=oracledb.defaults.stmtcachesize, edition=None, tag=None, matchanytag=False, config_dir=oracledb.defaults.config_dir, appcontext=[], shardingkey=[], supershardingkey=[], debug_jdwp=None, handle=0)

Constructor for creating a connection to the database. Returns a Connection Object. All parameters are optional and can be specified as keyword parameters. See Standalone Connections information about connections.

Not all parameters apply to both python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

Some values, such as the database host name, can be specified as parameters, as part of the connect string, and in the params object. If a dsn (data source name) parameter is passed, the python-oracledb Thick mode will use the string to connect, otherwise a connection string is internally constructed from the individual parameters and params object values, with the individual parameters having precedence. In python-oracledb’s default Thin mode, a connection string is internally used that contains all relevant values specified. The precedence in Thin mode is that values in any dsn parameter override values passed as individual parameters, which themselves override values set in the params parameter object. Similar precedence rules also apply to other values.

The dsn (data source name) parameter can be a string in the format user/password@connect_string or can simply be the connect string (in which case authentication credentials such as the username and password need to be specified separately). See Connection Strings for more information.

The pool parameter is expected to be a pool object. The use of this parameter is the equivalent of calling ConnectionPool.acquire().

The conn_class parameter is expected to be Connection or a subclass of Connection.

The params parameter is expected to be of type ConnectParams and contains connection parameters that will be used when establishing the connection. If this parameter is not specified, the additional keyword parameters will be used to create an instance of ConnectParams. If both the params parameter and additional keyword parameters are specified, the values in the keyword parameters have precedence. Note that if a dsn is also supplied, then in the python-oracledb Thin mode, the values of the parameters specified (if any) within the dsn will override the values passed as additional keyword parameters, which themselves override the values set in the params parameter object.

The user parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the name of the user to connect to. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The proxy_user parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the name of the proxy user to connect to. If this value is not specified, it will be parsed out of user if user is in the form “user[proxy_user]”. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The password parameter expected to be a string which indicates the password for the user. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The newpassword parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the new password for the user. The new password will take effect immediately upon a successful connection to the database. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The wallet_password parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the password to use to decrypt the PEM-encoded wallet, if it is encrypted. This value is only used in python-oracledb Thin mode. The wallet_password parameter is not needed for cwallet.sso files that are used in the python-oracledb Thick mode.

The access_token parameter is expected to be a string or a 2-tuple or a callable. If it is a string, it specifies an Azure AD OAuth2 token used for Open Authorization (OAuth 2.0) token based authentication. If it is a 2-tuple, it specifies the token and private key strings used for Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) Identity and Access Management (IAM) token based authentication. If it is a callable, it returns either a string or a 2-tuple used for OAuth 2.0 or OCI IAM token based authentication and is useful when the pool needs to expand and create new connections but the current authentication token has expired. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The host parameter is expected to be a string which specifies the name or IP address of the machine hosting the listener, which handles the initial connection to the database. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The port parameter is expected to be an integer which indicates the port number on which the listener is listening. The default value is 1521. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The protocol parameter is expected to be one of the strings “tcp” or “tcps” which indicates whether to use unencrypted network traffic or encrypted network traffic (TLS). The default value is tcp. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The https_proxy parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the name or IP address of a proxy host to use for tunneling secure connections. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The https_proxy_port parameter is expected to be an integer which indicates the port that is to be used to communicate with the proxy host. The default value is 0. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The service_name parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the service name of the database. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The sid parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the SID of the database. It is recommended to use service_name instead. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The server_type parameter is expected to be a string that indicates the type of server connection that should be established. If specified, it should be one of dedicated, shared, or pooled. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The cclass parameter is expected to be a string that identifies the connection class to use for Database Resident Connection Pooling (DRCP). This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The purity parameter is expected to be one of the oracledb.PURITY_* constants that identifies the purity to use for DRCP. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The purity will internally default to PURITY_SELF for pooled connections. For standalone connections, the purity will internally default to PURITY_NEW.

The expire_time parameter is expected to be an integer which indicates the number of minutes between the sending of keepalive probes. If this parameter is set to a value greater than zero it enables keepalive. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default value is 0.

The retry_count parameter is expected to be an integer that identifies the number of times that a connection attempt should be retried before the attempt is terminated. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default value is 0.

The retry_delay parameter is expected to be an integer that identifies the number of seconds to wait before making a new connection attempt. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default value is 0.

The tcp_connect_timeout parameter is expected to be a float that indicates the maximum number of seconds to wait for establishing a connection to the database host. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default value is 60.0.

The ssl_server_dn_match parameter is expected to be a boolean that indicates whether the server certificate distinguished name (DN) should be matched in addition to the regular certificate verification that is performed. Note that if the ssl_server_cert_dn parameter is not provided, host name matching is performed instead. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default value is True.

The ssl_server_cert_dn parameter is expected to be a string that indicates the distinguished name (DN) which should be matched with the server. This value is ignored if the ssl_server_dn_match parameter is not set to the value True. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The wallet_location parameter is expected to be a string that identifies the directory where the wallet can be found. In python-oracledb Thin mode, this must be the directory of the PEM-encoded wallet file, ewallet.pem. In python-oracledb Thick mode, this must be the directory of the file, cwallet.sso. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The events parameter is expected to be a boolean that specifies whether the events mode should be enabled. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode. This parameter is needed for continuous query notification and high availability event notifications. The default value is False.

The externalauth parameter is a boolean that specifies whether external authentication should be used. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode. The default value is False. For standalone connections, external authentication occurs when the user and password attributes are not used. If these attributes are not used, you can optionally set the externalauth attribute to True, which may aid code auditing.

If the mode parameter is specified, it must be one of the connection authorization modes which are defined at the module level. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default value is oracledb.AUTH_MODE_DEFAULT.

The disable_oob parameter is expected to be a boolean that indicates whether out-of-band breaks should be disabled. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thin mode and has no effect on Windows which does not support this functionality. The default value is False.

The stmtcachesize parameter is expected to be an integer which specifies the initial size of the statement cache. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default is the value of defaults.stmtcachesize.

The edition parameter is expected to be a string that indicates the edition to use for the connection. This parameter cannot be used simultaneously with the cclass parameter. This value is used in the python-oracledb Thick mode.

The tag parameter is expected to be a string that identifies the type of connection that should be returned from a pool. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode.

The matchanytag parameter is expected to be a boolean specifying whether any tag can be used when acquiring a connection from the pool. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode when acquiring a connection from a pool. The default value is False.

The config_dir parameter is expected to be a string that indicates the directory in which configuration files (tnsnames.ora) are found. This value is only used in python-oracledb Thin mode. The default is the value of defaults.config_dir. For python-oracledb Thick mode, use the config_dir parameter of oracledb.init_oracle_client().

The appcontext parameter is expected to be a list of 3-tuples that identifies the application context used by the connection. This parameter should contain namespace, name, and value and each entry in the tuple should be a string. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode.

The shardingkey parameter and supershardingkey parameters, if specified, are expected to be a sequence of values which identifies the database shard to connect to. The key values can be a list of strings, numbers, bytes, or dates. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode.

The debug_jdwp parameter is expected to be a string with the format host=<host>;port=<port> that specifies the host and port of the PL/SQL debugger. This allows using the Java Debug Wire Protocol (JDWP) to debug PL/SQL code called by python-oracledb. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thin mode. For python-oracledb Thick mode, set the ORA_DEBUG_JDWP environment variable which has the same syntax. For more information, see Application Tracing.

If the handle parameter is specified, it must be of type OCISvcCtx* and is only of use when embedding Python in an application (like PowerBuilder) which has already made the connection. The connection thus created should never be used after the source handle has been closed or destroyed. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode. It should be used with extreme caution. The default value is 0.

oracledb.ConnectParams(user=None, proxy_user=None, password=None, newpassword=None, wallet_password=None, access_token=None, host=None, port=1521, protocol='tcp', https_proxy=None, https_proxy_port=0, service_name=None, sid=None, server_type=None, cclass=None, purity=oracledb.PURITY_DEFAULT, expire_time=0, retry_count=0, retry_delay=0, tcp_connect_timeout=60.0, ssl_server_dn_match=True, ssl_server_cert_dn=None, wallet_location=None, events=False, externalauth=False, mode=oracledb.AUTH_MODE_DEFAULT, disable_oob=False, stmtcachesize=oracledb.defaults.stmtcachesize, edition=None, tag=None, matchanytag=False, config_dir=oracledb.defaults.config_dir, appcontext=[], shardingkey=[], supershardingkey=[], debug_jdwp=None, handle=0)

Contains all the parameters that can be used to establish a connection to the database.

Creates and returns a ConnectParams Object. The object can be passed to oracledb.connect().

All the parameters are optional.

The user parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the name of the user to connect to. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The proxy_user parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the name of the proxy user to connect to. If this value is not specified, it will be parsed out of user if user is in the form “user[proxy_user]”. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The password parameter expected to be a string which indicates the password for the user. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The newpassword parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the new password for the user. The new password will take effect immediately upon a successful connection to the database. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The wallet_password parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the password to use to decrypt the PEM-encoded wallet, if it is encrypted. This value is only used in python-oracledb Thin mode. The wallet_password parameter is not needed for cwallet.sso files that are used in the python-oracledb Thick mode.

The access_token parameter is expected to be a string or a 2-tuple or a callable. If it is a string, it specifies an Azure AD OAuth2 token used for Open Authorization (OAuth 2.0) token based authentication. If it is a 2-tuple, it specifies the token and private key strings used for Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) Identity and Access Management (IAM) token based authentication. If it is a callable, it returns either a string or a 2-tuple used for OAuth 2.0 or OCI IAM token based authentication and is useful when the pool needs to expand and create new connections but the current authentication token has expired. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The host parameter is expected to be a string which specifies the name or IP address of the machine hosting the listener, which handles the initial connection to the database. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The port parameter is expected to be an integer which indicates the port number on which the listener is listening. The default value is 1521. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The protocol parameter is expected to be one of the strings “tcp” or “tcps” which indicates whether to use unencrypted network traffic or encrypted network traffic (TLS). The default value is tcp. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The https_proxy parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the name or IP address of a proxy host to use for tunneling secure connections. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The https_proxy_port parameter is expected to be an integer which indicates the port that is to be used to communicate with the proxy host. The default value is 0. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The service_name parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the service name of the database. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The sid parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the SID of the database. It is recommended to use service_name instead. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The server_type parameter is expected to be a string that indicates the type of server connection that should be established. If specified, it should be one of “dedicated”, “shared”, or “pooled”. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The cclass parameter is expected to be a string that identifies the connection class to use for Database Resident Connection Pooling (DRCP). This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The purity parameter is expected to be one of the oracledb.PURITY_* constants that identifies the purity to use for DRCP. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The purity will internally default to PURITY_SELF for pooled connections . For standalone connections, the purity will internally default to PURITY_NEW.

The expire_time parameter is expected to be an integer which indicates the number of minutes between the sending of keepalive probes. If this parameter is set to a value greater than zero it enables keepalive. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default value is 0.

The retry_count parameter is expected to be an integer that identifies the number of times that a connection attempt should be retried before the attempt is terminated. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default value is 0.

The retry_delay parameter is expected to be an integer that identifies the number of seconds to wait before making a new connection attempt. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default value is 0.

The tcp_connect_timeout parameter is expected to be a float that indicates the maximum number of seconds to wait for establishing a connection to the database host. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default value is 60.0.

The ssl_server_dn_match parameter is expected to be a boolean that indicates whether the server certificate distinguished name (DN) should be matched in addition to the regular certificate verification that is performed. Note that if the ssl_server_cert_dn parameter is not provided, host name matching is performed instead. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default value is True.

The ssl_server_cert_dn parameter is expected to be a string that indicates the distinguished name (DN) which should be matched with the server. This value is ignored if the ssl_server_dn_match parameter is not set to the value True. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The wallet_location parameter is expected to be a string that identifies the directory where the wallet can be found. In python-oracledb Thin mode, this must be the directory of the PEM-encoded wallet file, ewallet.pem. In python-oracledb Thick mode, this must be the directory of the file, cwallet.sso. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The events parameter is expected to be a boolean that specifies whether the events mode should be enabled. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode. This parameter is needed for continuous query notification and high availability event notifications. The default value is False.

The externalauth parameter is a boolean that specifies whether external authentication should be used. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode. The default value is False. For standalone connections, external authentication occurs when the user and password attributes are not used. If these attributes are not used, you can optionally set the externalauth attribute to True, which may aid code auditing.

The mode parameter is expected to be an integer that identifies the authorization mode to use. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.The default value is oracledb.AUTH_MODE_DEFAULT.

The disable_oob parameter is expected to be a boolean that indicates whether out-of-band breaks should be disabled. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thin mode and has no effect on Windows which does not support this functionality. The default value is False.

The stmtcachesize parameter is expected to be an integer that identifies the initial size of the statement cache. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default is the value of defaults.stmtcachesize.

The edition parameter is expected to be a string that indicates the edition to use for the connection. This parameter cannot be used simultaneously with the cclass parameter. This value is used in the python-oracledb Thick mode.

The tag parameter is expected to be a string that identifies the type of connection that should be returned from a pool. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode.

The matchanytag parameter is expected to be a boolean specifying whether any tag can be used when acquiring a connection from the pool. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode when acquiring a connection from a pool. The default value is False.

The config_dir parameter is expected to be a string that indicates the directory in which configuration files (tnsnames.ora) are found. This value is only used in python-oracledb Thin mode. The default is the value of defaults.config_dir. For python-oracledb Thick mode, use the config_dir parameter of oracledb.init_oracle_client().

The appcontext parameter is expected to be a list of 3-tuples that identifies the application context used by the connection. This parameter should contain namespace, name, and value and each entry in the tuple should be a string. This value is only used inthe python-oracledb Thick mode.

The shardingkey parameter is expected to be a list of strings, numbers, bytes or dates that identifies the database shard to connect to. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode.

The supershardingkey parameter is expected to be a list of strings, numbers, bytes or dates that identifies the database shard to connect to. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode.

The debug_jdwp parameter is expected to be a string with the format host=<host>;port=<port> that specifies the host and port of the PL/SQL debugger. This allows using the Java Debug Wire Protocol (JDWP) to debug PL/SQL code invoked by python-oracledb. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thin mode. For python-oracledb Thick mode, set the ORA_DEBUG_JDWP environment variable which has the same syntax. For more information, see Application Tracing.

The handle parameter is expected to be an integer which represents a pointer to a valid service context handle. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode. It should be used with extreme caution. The default value is 0.

oracledb.create_pool(dsn=None, pool_class=oracledb.ConnectionPool, params=None, min=1, max=2, increment=1, connectiontype=oracledb.Connection, getmode=oracledb.POOL_GETMODE_WAIT, homogeneous=True, timeout=0, wait_timeout=0, max_lifetime_session=0, session_callback=None, max_sessions_per_shard=0, soda_metadata_cache=False, ping_interval=60, user=None, proxy_user=None, password=None, newpassword=None, wallet_password=None, access_token=None, host=None, port=1521, protocol='tcp', https_proxy=None, https_proxy_port=0, service_name=None, sid=None, server_type=None, cclass=None, purity=oracledb.PURITY_DEFAULT, expire_time=0, retry_count=0, retry_delay=0, tcp_connect_timeout=60.0, ssl_server_dn_match=True, ssl_server_cert_dn=None, wallet_location=None, events=False, externalauth=False, mode=oracledb.AUTH_MODE_DEFAULT, disable_oob=False, stmtcachesize=oracledb.defaults.stmtcachesize, edition=None, tag=None, matchanytag=False, config_dir=oracledb.defaults.config_dir, appcontext=[], shardingkey=[], supershardingkey=[], debug_jdwp=None, handle=0)

Creates a connection pool with the supplied parameters and returns the ConnectionPool object for the pool. See Connection pooling for more information.

This function is the equivalent of the cx_Oracle.SessionPool() function. The use of SessionPool() has been deprecated in python-oracledb.

Not all parameters apply to both python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

Some values, such as the database host name, can be specified as parameters, as part of the connect string, and in the params object. If a dsn (data source name) parameter is passed, the python-oracledb Thick mode will use the string to connect, otherwise a connection string is internally constructed from the individual parameters and params object values, with the individual parameters having precedence. In python-oracledb’s default Thin mode, a connection string is internally used that contains all relevant values specified. The precedence in Thin mode is that values in any dsn parameter override values passed as individual parameters, which themselves override values set in the params parameter object. Similar precedence rules also apply to other values.

The user, password, and dsn parameters are the same as for oracledb.connect().

The pool_class parameter is expected to be a ConnectionPool Object or a subclass of ConnectionPool.

The params parameter is expected to be of type PoolParams and contains parameters that are used to create the pool. If this parameter is not specified, the additional keyword parameters will be used to create an instance of PoolParams. If both the params parameter and additional keyword parameters are specified, the values in the keyword parameters have precedence. Note that if a dsn is also supplied, then in the python-oracledb Thin mode, the values of the parameters specified (if any) within the dsn will override the values passed as additional keyword parameters, which themselves override the values set in the params parameter object.

The min, max and increment parameters control pool growth behavior. A fixed pool size where min equals max is recommended to help prevent connection storms and to help overall system stability. The min parameter is the number of connections opened when the pool is created. The default value of the min parameter is 1. The increment parameter is the number of connections that are opened whenever a connection request exceeds the number of currently open connections. The default value of the increment parameter is 1. The max parameter is the maximum number of connections that can be open in the connection pool. The default value of the max parameter is 2.

If the connectiontype parameter is specified, all calls to ConnectionPool.acquire() will create connection objects of that type, rather than the base type defined at the module level.

The getmode parameter determines the behavior of ConnectionPool.acquire(). One of the constants oracledb.POOL_GETMODE_WAIT, oracledb.POOL_GETMODE_NOWAIT, oracledb.POOL_GETMODE_FORCEGET, or oracledb.POOL_GETMODE_TIMEDWAIT. The default value is oracledb.POOL_GETMODE_WAIT.

The homogeneous parameter is a boolean that indicates whether the connections are homogeneous (same user) or heterogeneous (multiple users). The default value is True.

The timeout parameter is the length of time (in seconds) that a connection may remain idle in the pool before it is terminated. If the value of this parameter is 0, then the connections are never terminated. The default value is 0.

The wait_timeout parameter is the length of time (in milliseconds) that a caller should wait when acquiring a connection from the pool with getmode set to oracledb.POOL_GETMODE_TIMEDWAIT. The default value is 0.

The max_lifetime_session parameter is the length of time (in seconds) that connections can remain in the pool. If the value of this parameter is 0, then the connections may remain in the pool indefinitely. The default value is 0.

The session_callback parameter is a callable that is invoked when a connection is returned from the pool for the first time, or when the connection tag differs from the one requested.

The max_sessions_per_shard parameter is the maximum number of connections that may be associated with a particular shard. The default value is 0.

The soda_metadata_cache parameter is a boolean that indicates whether or not the SODA metadata cache should be enabled. The default value is False.

The ping_interval parameter is the length of time (in seconds) after which an unused connection in the pool will be a candidate for pinging when ConnectionPool.acquire() is called. If the ping to the database indicates the connection is not alive a replacement connection will be returned by acquire(). If ping_interval is a negative value, then the ping functionality will be disabled. The default value is 60 seconds.

The proxy_user parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the name of the proxy user to connect to. If this value is not specified, it will be parsed out of user if user is in the form “user[proxy_user]”. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The newpassword parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the new password for the user. The new password will take effect immediately upon a successful connection to the database. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The wallet_password parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the password to use to decrypt the PEM-encoded wallet, if it is encrypted. This value is only used in python-oracledb Thin mode. The wallet_password parameter is not needed for cwallet.sso files that are used in the python-oracledb Thick mode.

The access_token parameter is expected to be a string or a 2-tuple or a callable. If it is a string, it specifies an Azure AD OAuth2 token used for Open Authorization (OAuth 2.0) token based authentication. If it is a 2-tuple, it specifies the token and private key strings used for Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) Identity and Access Management (IAM) token based authentication. If it is a callable, it returns either a string or a 2-tuple used for OAuth 2.0 or OCI IAM token based authentication and is useful when the pool needs to expand and create new connections but the current authentication token has expired. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The host parameter is expected to be a string which specifies the name or IP address of the machine hosting the listener, which handles the initial connection to the database. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The port parameter is expected to be an integer which indicates the port number on which the listener is listening. The default value is 1521. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The protocol parameter is expected to be one of the strings “tcp” or “tcps” which indicates whether to use unencrypted network traffic or encrypted network traffic (TLS). The default value is tcp. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The https_proxy parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the name or IP address of a proxy host to use for tunneling secure connections. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The https_proxy_port parameter is expected to be an integer which indicates the port that is to be used to communicate with the proxy host. The default value is 0. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The service_name parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the service name of the database. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The sid parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the SID of the database. It is recommended to use service_name instead. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The server_type parameter is expected to be a string that indicates the type of server connection that should be established. If specified, it should be one of dedicated, shared, or pooled. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The cclass parameter is expected to be a string that identifies the connection class to use for Database Resident Connection Pooling (DRCP). This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The purity parameter is expected to be one of the oracledb.PURITY_* constants that identifies the purity to use for DRCP. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The purity will internally default to PURITY_SELF for pooled connections.

The expire_time parameter is expected to be an integer which indicates the number of minutes between the sending of keepalive probes. If this parameter is set to a value greater than zero it enables keepalive. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default value is 0.

The retry_count parameter is expected to be an integer that identifies the number of times that a connection attempt should be retried before the attempt is terminated. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default value is 0.

The retry_delay parameter is expected to be an integer that identifies the number of seconds to wait before making a new connection attempt. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default value is 0.

The tcp_connect_timeout parameter is expected to be a float that indicates the maximum number of seconds to wait for establishing a connection to the database host. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default value is 60.0.

The ssl_server_dn_match parameter is expected to be a boolean that indicates whether the server certificate distinguished name (DN) should be matched in addition to the regular certificate verification that is performed. Note that if the ssl_server_cert_dn parameter is not provided, host name matching is performed instead. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default value is True.

The ssl_server_cert_dn parameter is expected to be a string that indicates the distinguished name (DN) which should be matched with the server. This value is ignored if the ssl_server_dn_match parameter is not set to the value True. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The wallet_location parameter is expected to be a string that identifies the directory where the wallet can be found. In python-oracledb Thin mode, this must be the directory of the PEM-encoded wallet file, ewallet.pem. In python-oracledb Thick mode, this must be the directory of the file, cwallet.sso. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The events parameter is expected to be a boolean that specifies whether the events mode should be enabled. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode. This parameter is needed for continuous query notification and high availability event notifications. The default value is False.

The externalauth parameter is a boolean that determines whether to use external authentication. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode. The default value is False.

If the mode parameter is specified, it must be one of the connection authorization modes which are defined at the module level. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.The default value is oracledb.AUTH_MODE_DEFAULT.

The disable_oob parameter is expected to be a boolean that indicates whether out-of-band breaks should be disabled. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thin mode and has no effect on Windows which does not support this functionality. The default value is False.

The stmtcachesize parameter is expected to be an integer which specifies the initial size of the statement cache. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default is the value of defaults.stmtcachesize.

The edition parameter is expected to be a string that indicates the edition to use for the connection. This parameter cannot be used simultaneously with the cclass parameter. This value is used in the python-oracledb Thick mode.

The tag parameter is expected to be a string that identifies the type of connection that should be returned from a pool. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode.

The matchanytag parameter is expected to be a boolean specifying whether any tag can be used when acquiring a connection from the pool. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode when acquiring a connection from a pool. The default value is False.

The config_dir parameter is expected to be a string that indicates the directory in which configuration files (tnsnames.ora) are found. This value is only used in python-oracledb Thin mode. The default is the value of defaults.config_dir. For python-oracledb Thick mode, use the config_dir parameter of oracledb.init_oracle_client().

The appcontext parameter is expected to be a list of 3-tuples that identifies the application context used by the connection. This parameter should contain namespace, name, and value and each entry in the tuple should be a string. This value is only used inthe python-oracledb Thick mode.

The shardingkey parameter and supershardingkey parameters, if specified, are expected to be a sequence of values which identifies the database shard to connect to. The key values can be a list of strings, numbers, bytes, or dates. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode.

The debug_jdwp parameter is expected to be a string with the format host=<host>;port=<port> that specifies the host and port of the PL/SQL debugger. This allows using the Java Debug Wire Protocol (JDWP) to debug PL/SQL code invoked by python-oracledb. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thin mode. For python-oracledb Thick mode, set the ORA_DEBUG_JDWP environment variable which has the same syntax. For more information, see Application Tracing.

If the handle parameter is specified, it must be of type OCISvcCtx* and is only of use when embedding Python in an application (like PowerBuilder) which has already made the connection. The connection thus created should never be used after the source handle has been closed or destroyed. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode. It should be used with extreme caution. The deault value is 0.

In the python-oracledb Thick mode, connection pooling is handled by Oracle’s Session pooling technology. This allows python-oracledb applications to support features like Application Continuity.

oracledb.Cursor(connection)

Constructor for creating a cursor. Returns a new cursor object using the connection.

Note

This method is an extension to the DB API definition.

oracledb.Date(year, month, day)

Constructs an object holding a date value.

oracledb.DateFromTicks(ticks)

Constructs an object holding a date value from the given ticks value (number of seconds since the epoch; see the documentation of the standard Python time module for details).

oracledb.init_oracle_client(lib_dir=None, config_dir=None, error_url=None, driver_name=None)

Enables python-oracledb Thick mode by initializing the Oracle Client library, see Enabling python-oracledb Thick mode. The method must be called before any standalone connection or pool is created. If a connection or pool is first created in Thin mode, then init_oracle_client() will raise an exception and Thick mode cannot be enabled.

The init_oracle_client() method can be called multiple times in each Python process as long as the arguments are the same each time.

See Initializing python-oracledb for more information.

If the lib_dir parameter is not None or the empty string, the specified directory is the only one searched for the Oracle Client libraries; otherwise, the standard way of locating the Oracle Client library is used.

If the config_dir parameter is not None or the empty string, the specified directory is used to find Oracle Client library configuration files. This is equivalent to setting the environment variable TNS_ADMIN and overrides any value already set in TNS_ADMIN. If this parameter is not set, the standard way of locating Oracle Client library configuration files is used.

If the error_url parameter is not None or the empty string, the specified value is included in the message of the exception raised when the Oracle Client library cannot be loaded; otherwise, the Installing python-oracledb URL is included.

If the driver_name parameter is not None or the empty string, the specified value can be found in database views that give information about connections. For example, it is in the CLIENT_DRIVER column of V$SESSION_CONNECT_INFO. The standard is to set this value to "<name> : version>", where <name> is the name of the driver and <version> is its version. There should be a single space character before and after the colon. If this value is not specified, then the default value in python-oracledb Thick mode is like “python-oracledb thk : <version>”.

Note

This method is an extension to the DB API definition.

oracledb.is_thin_mode()

Returns a boolean indicating if Thin mode is in use.

Immediately after python-oracledb is imported, this function will return True indicating that python-oracledb defaults to Thin mode. If oracledb.init_oracle_client() is called, then a subsequent call to is_thin_mode() will return False indicating that Thick mode is enabled. Once the first standalone connection or connection pool is created, or a call to oracledb.init_oracle_client() is made, then python-oracledb’s mode is fixed and the value returned by is_thin_mode() will never change for the lifetime of the process.

The attribute Connection.thin can be used to check a connection’s mode.

Note

This method is an extension to the DB API definition.

New in version 1.1.0.

oracledb.makedsn(host, port, sid=None, service_name=None, region=None, sharding_key=None, super_sharding_key=None)

Returns a string suitable for use as the dsn parameter for connect(). This string is identical to the strings that are defined by the Oracle names server or defined in the tnsnames.ora file.

Deprecated since python-oracledb 1.0.

Use ConnectParams class instead.

Note

This method is an extension to the DB API definition.

oracledb.PoolParams(min=1, max=2, increment=1, connectiontype=None, getmode=oracledb.POOL_GETMODE_WAIT, homogeneous=True, timeout=0, wait_timeout=0, max_lifetime_session=0, session_callback=None, max_sessions_per_shard=0, soda_metadata_cache=False, ping_interval=60, user=None, proxy_user=Nonde, password=None, newpassword=None, wallet_password=None, access_token=None, host=None, port=1521, protocol='tcp', https_proxy=None, https_proxy_port=0, service_name=None, sid=None, server_type=None, cclass=None, purity=oracledb.PURITY_DEFAULT, expire_time=0, retry_count=0, retry_delay=0, tcp_connect_timeout=60.0, ssl_server_dn_match=True, ssl_server_cert_dn=None, wallet_location=None, events=False, externalauth=False, mode=oracledb.AUTH_MODE_DEFAULT, disable_oob=False, stmtcachesize=oracledb.defaults.stmtcachesize, edition=None, tag=None, matchanytag=False, config_dir=oracledb.defaults.config_dir, appcontext=[], shardingkey=[], supershardingkey=[], debug_jdwp=None, handle=0)

Creates and returns a PoolParams Object. The object can be passed to oracledb.create_pool().

All the parameters are optional.

The min parameter is the minimum number of connections that the pool should contain. The default value is 1.

The max parameter is the maximum number of connections that the pool should contain. The default value is 2.

The increment parameter is the number of connections that should be added to the pool whenever a new connection needs to be created. The default value is 1.

The connectiontype parameter is the class of the connection that should be returned during calls to ConnectionPool.acquire(). It must be a Connection or a subclass of Connection.

The getmode parameter determines the behavior of ConnectionPool.acquire(). One of the constants oracledb.POOL_GETMODE_WAIT, oracledb.POOL_GETMODE_NOWAIT, oracledb.POOL_GETMODE_FORCEGET, or oracledb.POOL_GETMODE_TIMEDWAIT. The default value is oracledb.POOL_GETMODE_WAIT.

The homogeneous parameter is a boolean that indicates whether the connections are homogeneous (same user) or heterogeneous (multiple users). The default value is True.

The timeout parameter is the length of time (in seconds) that a connection may remain idle in the pool before it is terminated. If the value of this parameter is 0, then the connections are never terminated. The default value is 0.

The wait_timeout parameter is the length of time (in milliseconds) that a caller should wait when acquiring a connection from the pool with getmode set to oracledb.POOL_GETMODE_TIMEDWAIT. The default value is 0.

The max_lifetime_session parameter is the length of time (in seconds) that connections can remain in the pool. If the value of this parameter is 0, then the connections may remain in the pool indefinitely. The default value is 0.

The session_callback parameter is a callable that is invoked when a connection is returned from the pool for the first time, or when the connection tag differs from the one requested.

The max_sessions_per_shard parameter is the maximum number of connections that may be associated with a particular shard. The default value is 0.

The soda_metadata_cache parameter is a boolean that indicates whether or not the SODA metadata cache should be enabled. The default value is False.

The ping_interval parameter is the length of time (in seconds) after which an unused connection in the pool will be a candidate for pinging when ConnectionPool.acquire() is called. If the ping to the database indicates the connection is not alive a replacement connection will be returned by ConnectionPool.acquire(). If ping_interval is a negative value, then the ping functionality will be disabled. The default value is 60 seconds.

The user parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the name of the user to connect to. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The proxy_user parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the name of the proxy user to connect to. If this value is not specified, it will be parsed out of user if user is in the form “user[proxy_user]”. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The password parameter expected to be a string which indicates the password for the user. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The newpassword parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the new password for the user. The new password will take effect immediately upon a successful connection to the database. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The wallet_password parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the password to use to decrypt the PEM-encoded wallet, if it is encrypted. This value is only used in python-oracledb Thin mode. The wallet_password parameter is not needed for cwallet.sso files that are used in the python-oracledb Thick mode.

The access_token parameter is expected to be a string or a 2-tuple or a callable. If it is a string, it specifies an Azure AD OAuth2 token used for Open Authorization (OAuth 2.0) token based authentication. If it is a 2-tuple, it specifies the token and private key strings used for Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) Identity and Access Management (IAM) token based authentication. If it is a callable, it returns either a string or a 2-tuple used for OAuth 2.0 or OCI IAM token based authentication and is useful when the pool needs to expand and create new connections but the current authentication token has expired. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The host parameter is expected to be a string which specifies the name or IP address of the machine hosting the listener, which handles the initial connection to the database. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The port parameter is expected to be an integer which indicates the port number on which the listener is listening. The default value is 1521. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The protocol parameter is expected to be one of the strings “tcp” or “tcps” which indicates whether to use unencrypted network traffic or encrypted network traffic (TLS). The default value is tcp. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The https_proxy parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the name or IP address of a proxy host to use for tunneling secure connections. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The https_proxy_port parameter is expected to be an integer which indicates the port that is to be used to communicate with the proxy host. The default value is 0. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The service_name parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the service name of the database. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The sid parameter is expected to be a string which indicates the SID of the database. It is recommended to use service_name instead. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The server_type parameter is expected to be a string that indicates the type of server connection that should be established. If specified, it should be one of dedicated, shared, or pooled. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The cclass parameter is expected to be a string that identifies the connection class to use for Database Resident Connection Pooling (DRCP). This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The purity parameter is expected to be one of the oracledb.PURITY_* constants that identifies the purity to use for DRCP. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. Internally pooled connections will default to a purity of PURITY_SELF.

The expire_time parameter is expected to be an integer which indicates the number of minutes between the sending of keepalive probes. If this parameter is set to a value greater than zero it enables keepalive. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default value is 0.

The retry_count parameter is expected to be an integer that identifies the number of times that a connection attempt should be retried before the attempt is terminated. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default value is 0.

The retry_delay parameter is expected to be an integer that identifies the number of seconds to wait before making a new connection attempt. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default value is 0.

The tcp_connect_timeout parameter is expected to be a float that indicates the maximum number of seconds to wait for establishing a connection to the database host. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default value is 60.0.

The ssl_server_dn_match parameter is expected to be a boolean that indicates whether the server certificate distinguished name (DN) should be matched in addition to the regular certificate verification that is performed. Note that if the ssl_server_cert_dn parameter is not provided, host name matching is performed instead. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default value is True.

The ssl_server_cert_dn parameter is expected to be a string that indicates the distinguished name (DN) which should be matched with the server. This value is ignored if the ssl_server_dn_match parameter is not set to the value True. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The wallet_location parameter is expected to be a string that identifies the directory where the wallet can be found. In python-oracledb Thin mode, this must be the directory of the PEM-encoded wallet file, ewallet.pem. In python-oracledb Thick mode, this must be the directory of the file, cwallet.sso. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.

The externalauth parameter is a boolean that determines whether to use external authentication. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode. The default value is False.

The events parameter is expected to be a boolean that specifies whether the events mode should be enabled. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode. This parameter is needed for continuous query notification and high availability event notifications. The default value is False.

The mode parameter is expected to be an integer that identifies the authorization mode to use. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes.The default value is oracledb.AUTH_MODE_DEFAULT.

The disable_oob parameter is expected to be a boolean that indicates whether out-of-band breaks should be disabled. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thin mode and has no effect on Windows which does not support this functionality. The default value is False.

The stmtcachesize parameter is expected to be an integer that identifies the initial size of the statement cache. This value is used in both the python-oracledb Thin and Thick modes. The default is the value of defaults.stmtcachesize.

The edition parameter is expected to be a string that indicates the edition to use for the connection. This parameter cannot be used simultaneously with the cclass parameter. This value is used in the python-oracledb Thick mode.

The tag parameter is expected to be a string that identifies the type of connection that should be returned from a pool. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode.

The matchanytag parameter is expected to be a boolean specifying whether any tag can be used when acquiring a connection from the pool. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode when acquiring a connection from a pool. The default value is False.

The config_dir parameter is expected to be a string that indicates the directory in which configuration files (tnsnames.ora) are found. This value is only used in python-oracledb Thin mode. The default is the value of defaults.config_dir. For python-oracledb Thick mode, use the config_dir parameter of oracledb.init_oracle_client().

The appcontext parameter is expected to be a list of 3-tuples that identifies the application context used by the connection. This parameter should contain namespace, name, and value and each entry in the tuple should be a string. This value is only used inthe python-oracledb Thick mode.

The shardingkey parameter is expected to be a list of strings, numbers, bytes or dates that identifies the database shard to connect to. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode.

The supershardingkey parameter is expected to be a list of strings, numbers, bytes or dates that identifies the database shard to connect to. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode.

The debug_jdwp parameter is expected to be a string with the format host=<host>;port=<port> that specifies the host and port of the PL/SQL debugger. This allows using the Java Debug Wire Protocol (JDWP) to debug PL/SQL code invoked by python-oracledb. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thin mode. For python-oracledb Thick mode, set the ORA_DEBUG_JDWP environment variable which has the same syntax. For more information, see Debugging PL/SQL with the Java Debug Wire Protocol.

The handle parameter is expected to be an integer which represents a pointer to a valid service context handle. This value is only used in the python-oracledb Thick mode. It should be used with extreme caution. The default value is 0.

oracledb.Time(hour, minute, second)

Constructs an object holding a time value.

Note

The time only data type is not supported by Oracle. Calling this function will raise a NotSupportedError exception.

oracledb.TimeFromTicks(ticks)

Constructs an object holding a time value from the given ticks value (number of seconds since the epoch; see the documentation of the standard Python time module for details).

Note

The time only data type is not supported by Oracle. Calling this function will raise a NotSupportedError exception.

oracledb.Timestamp(year, month, day, hour, minute, second)

Constructs an object holding a time stamp value.

oracledb.TimestampFromTicks(ticks)

Constructs an object holding a time stamp value from the given ticks value (number of seconds since the epoch; see the documentation of the standard Python time module for details).

1.2. Oracledb Constants

1.2.1. General

oracledb.apilevel

String constant stating the supported DB API level. Currently ‘2.0’.

oracledb.buildtime

String constant stating the time when the binary was built.

Note

This constant is an extension to the DB API definition.

oracledb.paramstyle

String constant stating the type of parameter marker formatting expected by the interface. Currently ‘named’ as in ‘where name = :name’.

oracledb.threadsafety

Integer constant stating the level of thread safety that the interface supports. Currently 2, which means that threads may share the module and connections, but not cursors. Sharing means that a thread may use a resource without wrapping it using a mutex semaphore to implement resource locking.

Note that in order to make use of multiple threads in a program which intends to connect and disconnect in different threads, the threaded parameter to connect() must be True.

oracledb.version
oracledb.__version__

String constant stating the version of the module. Currently ‘1.2.0b1’.

Note

This attribute is an extension to the DB API definition.

1.2.2. Advanced Queuing: Delivery Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the deliverymode attribute of the dequeue options object passed as the options parameter to the Queue.deqone() or Queue.deqmany() methods as well as the deliverymode attribute of the enqueue options object passed as the options parameter to the Queue.enqone() or Queue.enqmany() methods. They are also possible values for the deliverymode attribute of the message properties object passed as the msgproperties parameter to the Queue.deqone() or Queue.deqmany() and Queue.enqone() or Queue.enqmany() methods.

oracledb.MSG_BUFFERED

This constant is used to specify that enqueue/dequeue operations should enqueue or dequeue buffered messages.

oracledb.MSG_PERSISTENT

This constant is used to specify that enqueue/dequeue operations should enqueue or dequeue persistent messages. This is the default value.

oracledb.MSG_PERSISTENT_OR_BUFFERED

This constant is used to specify that dequeue operations should dequeue either persistent or buffered messages.

1.2.3. Advanced Queuing: Dequeue Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the mode attribute of the dequeue options object. This object is the options parameter for the Queue.deqone() or Queue.deqmany() methods.

oracledb.DEQ_BROWSE

This constant is used to specify that dequeue should read the message without acquiring any lock on the message (equivalent to a select statement).

oracledb.DEQ_LOCKED

This constant is used to specify that dequeue should read and obtain a write lock on the message for the duration of the transaction (equivalent to a select for update statement).

oracledb.DEQ_REMOVE

This constant is used to specify that dequeue should read the message and update or delete it. This is the default value.

oracledb.DEQ_REMOVE_NODATA

This constant is used to specify that dequeue should confirm receipt of the message but not deliver the actual message content.

1.2.4. Advanced Queuing: Dequeue Navigation Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the navigation attribute of the dequeue options object. This object is the options parameter for the Queue.deqone() or Queue.deqmany() methods.

oracledb.DEQ_FIRST_MSG

This constant is used to specify that dequeue should retrieve the first available message that matches the search criteria. This resets the position to the beginning of the queue.

oracledb.DEQ_NEXT_MSG

This constant is used to specify that dequeue should retrieve the next available message that matches the search criteria. If the previous message belongs to a message group, AQ retrieves the next available message that matches the search criteria and belongs to the message group. This is the default.

oracledb.DEQ_NEXT_TRANSACTION

This constant is used to specify that dequeue should skip the remainder of the transaction group and retrieve the first message of the next transaction group. This option can only be used if message grouping is enabled for the current queue.

1.2.5. Advanced Queuing: Dequeue Visibility Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the visibility attribute of the dequeue options object. This object is the options parameter for the Queue.deqone() or Queue.deqmany() methods.

oracledb.DEQ_IMMEDIATE

This constant is used to specify that dequeue should perform its work as part of an independent transaction.

oracledb.DEQ_ON_COMMIT

This constant is used to specify that dequeue should be part of the current transaction. This is the default value.

1.2.6. Advanced Queuing: Dequeue Wait Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the wait attribute of the dequeue options object. This object is the options parameter for the Queue.deqone() or Queue.deqmany() methods.

oracledb.DEQ_NO_WAIT

This constant is used to specify that dequeue not wait for messages to be available for dequeuing.

oracledb.DEQ_WAIT_FOREVER

This constant is used to specify that dequeue should wait forever for messages to be available for dequeuing. This is the default value.

1.2.7. Advanced Queuing: Enqueue Visibility Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the visibility attribute of the enqueue options object. This object is the options parameter for the Queue.enqone() or Queue.enqmany() methods.

oracledb.ENQ_IMMEDIATE

This constant is used to specify that enqueue should perform its work as part of an independent transaction.

oracledb.ENQ_ON_COMMIT

This constant is used to specify that enqueue should be part of the current transaction. This is the default value.

1.2.8. Advanced Queuing: Message States

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the state attribute of the message properties object. This object is the msgproperties parameter for the Connection.deq() and Queue.enqone() or Queue.enqmany() methods.

oracledb.MSG_EXPIRED

This constant is used to specify that the message has been moved to the exception queue.

oracledb.MSG_PROCESSED

This constant is used to specify that the message has been processed and has been retained.

oracledb.MSG_READY

This constant is used to specify that the message is ready to be processed.

oracledb.MSG_WAITING

This constant is used to specify that the message delay has not yet been reached.

1.2.9. Advanced Queuing: Other

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are special constants used in advanced queuing.

oracledb.MSG_NO_DELAY

This constant is a possible value for the delay attribute of the message properties object passed as the msgproperties parameter to the Queue.deqone() or Queue.deqmany() and Queue.enqone() or Queue.enqmany() methods. It specifies that no delay should be imposed and the message should be immediately available for dequeuing. This is also the default value.

oracledb.MSG_NO_EXPIRATION

This constant is a possible value for the expiration attribute of the message properties object passed as the msgproperties parameter to the Queue.deqone() or Queue.deqmany() and Queue.enqone() or Queue.enqmany() methods. It specifies that the message never expires. This is also the default value.

1.2.10. Connection Authorization Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition and have deprecated the authorization modes used in cx_Oracle 8.3. They are possible values for the mode parameter of the connect() method.

oracledb.AUTH_MODE_DEFAULT

This constant is used to specify that default authentication is to take place. This is the default value if no mode is passed at all.

Note

This constant can be used for standalone and pooled connections in the python-oracledb Thin mode, and for standalone connections in the Thick mode.

This constant deprecates the DEFAULT_AUTH constant that was used in cx_Oracle 8.3.

oracledb.AUTH_MODE_PRELIM

This constant is used to specify that preliminary authentication is to be used. This is needed for performing database startup and shutdown.

Note

This constant can only be used in the python-oracledb Thick mode for standalone connections.

This constant deprecates the PRELIM_AUTH constant that was used in cx_Oracle 8.3.

oracledb.AUTH_MODE_SYSASM

This constant is used to specify that SYSASM access is to be acquired.

Note

This constant can be used for standalone and pooled connections in the python-oracledb Thin mode, and for standalone connections in the Thick mode.

This constant deprecates the SYSASM constant that was used in cx_Oracle 8.3.

oracledb.AUTH_MODE_SYSBKP

This constant is used to specify that SYSBACKUP access is to be acquired.

Note

This constant can be used for standalone and pooled connections in the python-oracledb Thin mode, and for standalone connections in the Thick mode.

This constant deprecates the SYSBKP constant that was used in cx_Oracle 8.3.

oracledb.AUTH_MODE_SYSDBA

This constant is used to specify that SYSDBA access is to be acquired.

Note

This constant can be used for standalone and pooled connections in the python-oracledb Thin mode, and for standalone connections in the Thick mode.

This constant deprecates the SYSDBA constant that was used in cx_Oracle 8.3.

oracledb.AUTH_MODE_SYSDGD

This constant is used to specify that SYSDG access is to be acquired.

Note

This constant can be used for standalone and pooled connections in the python-oracledb Thin mode, and for standalone connections in the Thick mode.

This constant deprecates the SYSDGD constant that was used in cx_Oracle 8.3.

oracledb.AUTH_MODE_SYSKMT

This constant is used to specify that SYSKM access is to be acquired.

Note

This constant can be used for standalone and pooled connections in the python-oracledb Thin mode, and for standalone connections in the Thick mode.

This constant deprecates the SYSKMT constant that was used in cx_Oracle 8.3.

oracledb.AUTH_MODE_SYSOPER

This constant is used to specify that SYSOPER access is to be acquired.

Note

This constant can be used for standalone and pooled connections in the python-oracledb Thin mode, and for standalone connections in the Thick mode.

This constant deprecates the SYSOPER constant that was used in cx_Oracle 8.3.

oracledb.AUTH_MODE_SYSRAC

This constant is used to specify that SYSRAC access is to be acquired.

Note

This constant can be used for standalone and pooled connections in the python-oracledb Thin mode, and for standalone connections in the Thick mode.

This constant deprecates the SYSRAC constant that was used in cx_Oracle 8.3.

1.2.11. Database Shutdown Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the mode parameter of the Connection.shutdown() method.

oracledb.DBSHUTDOWN_ABORT

This constant is used to specify that the caller should not wait for current processing to complete or for users to disconnect from the database. This should only be used in unusual circumstances since database recovery may be necessary upon next startup.

oracledb.DBSHUTDOWN_FINAL

This constant is used to specify that the instance can be truly halted. This should only be done after the database has been shutdown with one of the other modes (except abort) and the database has been closed and dismounted using the appropriate SQL commands.

oracledb.DBSHUTDOWN_IMMEDIATE

This constant is used to specify that all uncommitted transactions should be rolled back and any connected users should be disconnected.

oracledb.DBSHUTDOWN_TRANSACTIONAL

This constant is used to specify that further connections to the database should be prohibited and no new transactions should be allowed. It then waits for all active transactions to complete.

oracledb.DBSHUTDOWN_TRANSACTIONAL_LOCAL

This constant is used to specify that further connections to the database should be prohibited and no new transactions should be allowed. It then waits for only local active transactions to complete.

1.2.12. Event Types

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the Message.type attribute of the messages that are sent for subscriptions created by the Connection.subscribe() method.

oracledb.EVENT_AQ

This constant is used to specify that one or more messages are available for dequeuing on the queue specified when the subscription was created.

oracledb.EVENT_DEREG

This constant is used to specify that the subscription has been deregistered and no further notifications will be sent.

oracledb.EVENT_NONE

This constant is used to specify no information is available about the event.

oracledb.EVENT_OBJCHANGE

This constant is used to specify that a database change has taken place on a table registered with the Subscription.registerquery() method.

oracledb.EVENT_QUERYCHANGE

This constant is used to specify that the result set of a query registered with the Subscription.registerquery() method has been changed.

oracledb.EVENT_SHUTDOWN

This constant is used to specify that the instance is in the process of being shut down.

oracledb.EVENT_SHUTDOWN_ANY

This constant is used to specify that any instance (when running RAC) is in the process of being shut down.

oracledb.EVENT_STARTUP

This constant is used to specify that the instance is in the process of being started up.

1.2.13. Operation Codes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the operations parameter for the Connection.subscribe() method. One or more of these values can be OR’ed together. These values are also used by the MessageTable.operation or MessageQuery.operation attributes of the messages that are sent.

oracledb.OPCODE_ALLOPS

This constant is used to specify that messages should be sent for all operations.

oracledb.OPCODE_ALLROWS

This constant is used to specify that the table or query has been completely invalidated.

oracledb.OPCODE_ALTER

This constant is used to specify that messages should be sent when a registered table has been altered in some fashion by DDL, or that the message identifies a table that has been altered.

oracledb.OPCODE_DELETE

This constant is used to specify that messages should be sent when data is deleted, or that the message identifies a row that has been deleted.

oracledb.OPCODE_DROP

This constant is used to specify that messages should be sent when a registered table has been dropped, or that the message identifies a table that has been dropped.

oracledb.OPCODE_INSERT

This constant is used to specify that messages should be sent when data is inserted, or that the message identifies a row that has been inserted.

oracledb.OPCODE_UPDATE

This constant is used to specify that messages should be sent when data is updated, or that the message identifies a row that has been updated.

1.2.14. Connection Pool Get Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition and have deprecated the Session Pool Get Modes constants that were used in cx_Oracle 8.3. They are possible values for the getmode parameter of the oracledb.create_pool() method.

oracledb.POOL_GETMODE_FORCEGET

This constant is used to specify that a new connection will be returned if there are no free sessions available in the pool.

Note

This constant deprecates the SPOOL_ATTRVAL_FORCEGET constant that was used in cx_Oracle 8.3.

oracledb.POOL_GETMODE_NOWAIT

This constant is used to specify that an exception should be raised if there are no free sessions available in the pool.

Note

This constant deprecates the SPOOL_ATTRVAL_NOWAIT constant that was used in cx_Oracle 8.3.

oracledb.POOL_GETMODE_WAIT

This constant is used to specify that the caller should wait until a session is available if there are no free sessions available in the pool. This is the default value.

Note

This constant deprecates the SPOOL_ATTRVAL_WAIT constant that was used in cx_Oracle 8.3.

oracledb.POOL_GETMODE_TIMEDWAIT

This constant is used to specify that the caller should wait for a period of time (defined by the wait_timeout parameter) for a session to become available before returning with an error.

Note

This constant deprecates the SPOOL_ATTRVAL_TIMEDWAIT constant that was used in cx_Oracle 8.3.

1.2.15. Connection Pool Purity Constants

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition and have deprecated the Session Pool Purity constants that were used in cx_Oracle 8.3. They are possible values for the purity parameter of the connect() method, which is used in Database Resident Connection Pooling (DRCP).

oracledb.PURITY_DEFAULT

This constant is used to specify that the purity of the session is the default value identified by Oracle (see Oracle’s documentation for more information). This is the default value.

Note

This constant deprecates the ATTR_PURITY_DEFAULT constant that was used in cx_Oracle 8.3.

oracledb.PURITY_NEW

This constant is used to specify that the session acquired from the pool should be new and not have any prior session state.

Note

This constant deprecates the ATTR_PURITY_NEW constant that was used in cx_Oracle 8.3.

oracledb.PURITY_SELF

This constant is used to specify that the session acquired from the pool need not be new and may have prior session state.

Note

This constant deprecates the ATTR_PURITY_SELF constant that was used in cx_Oracle 8.3.

1.2.16. Subscription Grouping Classes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the groupingClass parameter of the Connection.subscribe() method.

oracledb.SUBSCR_GROUPING_CLASS_TIME

This constant is used to specify that events are to be grouped by the period of time in which they are received.

1.2.17. Subscription Grouping Types

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the groupingType parameter of the Connection.subscribe() method.

oracledb.SUBSCR_GROUPING_TYPE_SUMMARY

This constant is used to specify that when events are grouped a summary of the events should be sent instead of the individual events. This is the default value.

oracledb.SUBSCR_GROUPING_TYPE_LAST

This constant is used to specify that when events are grouped the last event that makes up the group should be sent instead of the individual events.

1.2.18. Subscription Namespaces

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the namespace parameter of the Connection.subscribe() method.

oracledb.SUBSCR_NAMESPACE_AQ

This constant is used to specify that notifications should be sent when a queue has messages available to dequeue.

oracledb.SUBSCR_NAMESPACE_DBCHANGE

This constant is used to specify that database change notification or query change notification messages are to be sent. This is the default value.

1.2.19. Subscription Protocols

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the protocol parameter of the Connection.subscribe() method.

oracledb.SUBSCR_PROTO_CALLBACK

This constant is used to specify that notifications will be sent to the callback routine identified when the subscription was created. It is the default value and the only value currently supported.

oracledb.SUBSCR_PROTO_HTTP

This constant is used to specify that notifications will be sent to an HTTP URL when a message is generated. This value is currently not supported.

oracledb.SUBSCR_PROTO_MAIL

This constant is used to specify that notifications will be sent to an e-mail address when a message is generated. This value is currently not supported.

oracledb.SUBSCR_PROTO_OCI

This constant is used to specify that notifications will be sent to the callback routine identified when the subscription was created. It is the default value and the only value currently supported.

Deprecated since python-oracledb 1.0.

oracledb.SUBSCR_PROTO_SERVER

This constant is used to specify that notifications will be sent to a PL/SQL procedure when a message is generated. This value is currently not supported.

1.2.20. Subscription Quality of Service

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the qos parameter of the Connection.subscribe() method. One or more of these values can be OR’ed together.

oracledb.SUBSCR_QOS_BEST_EFFORT

This constant is used to specify that best effort filtering for query result set changes is acceptable. False positive notifications may be received. This behaviour may be suitable for caching applications.

oracledb.SUBSCR_QOS_DEREG_NFY

This constant is used to specify that the subscription should be automatically unregistered after the first notification is received.

oracledb.SUBSCR_QOS_QUERY

This constant is used to specify that notifications should be sent if the result set of the registered query changes. By default, no false positive notifications will be generated.

oracledb.SUBSCR_QOS_RELIABLE

This constant is used to specify that notifications should not be lost in the event of database failure.

oracledb.SUBSCR_QOS_ROWIDS

This constant is used to specify that the rowids of the inserted, updated or deleted rows should be included in the message objects that are sent.

1.2.21. DB API Types

oracledb.BINARY

This type object is used to describe columns in a database that contain binary data. The database types DB_TYPE_RAW and DB_TYPE_LONG_RAW will compare equal to this value. If a variable is created with this type, the database type DB_TYPE_RAW will be used.

oracledb.DATETIME

This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are dates. The database types DB_TYPE_DATE, DB_TYPE_TIMESTAMP, DB_TYPE_TIMESTAMP_LTZ and DB_TYPE_TIMESTAMP_TZ will all compare equal to this value. If a variable is created with this type, the database type DB_TYPE_DATE will be used.

oracledb.NUMBER

This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are numbers. The database types DB_TYPE_BINARY_DOUBLE, DB_TYPE_BINARY_FLOAT, DB_TYPE_BINARY_INTEGER and DB_TYPE_NUMBER will all compare equal to this value. If a variable is created with this type, the database type DB_TYPE_NUMBER will be used.

oracledb.ROWID

This type object is used to describe the pseudo column “rowid”. The database types DB_TYPE_ROWID and DB_TYPE_UROWID will compare equal to this value. If a variable is created with this type, the database type DB_TYPE_VARCHAR will be used.

oracledb.STRING

This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are strings. The database types DB_TYPE_CHAR, DB_TYPE_LONG, DB_TYPE_NCHAR, DB_TYPE_NVARCHAR and DB_TYPE_VARCHAR will all compare equal to this value. If a variable is created with this type, the database type DB_TYPE_VARCHAR will be used.

1.2.22. Database Types

All of these types are extensions to the DB API definition. They are found in query and object metadata. They can also be used to specify the database type when binding data.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_BFILE

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type BFILE. It will compare equal to the DB API type BINARY.

Note

DB_TYPE_BFILE database type is only supported in the python-oracledb Thick mode. See Enabling python-oracledb Thick mode.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_BINARY_DOUBLE

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type BINARY_DOUBLE. It will compare equal to the DB API type NUMBER.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_BINARY_FLOAT

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type BINARY_FLOAT. It will compare equal to the DB API type NUMBER.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_BINARY_INTEGER

Describes attributes or array elements in a database that are of type BINARY_INTEGER. It will compare equal to the DB API type NUMBER.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_BLOB

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type BLOB. It will compare equal to the DB API type BINARY.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_BOOLEAN

Describes attributes or array elements in a database that are of type BOOLEAN. It is only available in Oracle 12.1 and higher and only within PL/SQL.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_CHAR

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type CHAR. It will compare equal to the DB API type STRING.

Note that these are fixed length string values and behave differently from VARCHAR2.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_CLOB

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type CLOB. It will compare equal to the DB API type STRING.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_CURSOR

Describes columns in a database that are of type CURSOR. In PL/SQL, these are known as REF CURSOR.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_DATE

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type DATE. It will compare equal to the DB API type DATETIME.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_INTERVAL_DS

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_INTERVAL_YM

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH. This database type is not currently supported by python-oracledb.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_JSON

Describes columns in a database that are of type JSON (with Oracle Database 21 or later).

Note

DB_TYPE_JSON database type is only supported in the python-oracledb Thick mode. See Enabling python-oracledb Thick mode.

In python-oracledb Thin mode, the JSON database type can be fetched with an output type handler as described in Fetching JSON.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_LONG

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type LONG. It will compare equal to the DB API type STRING.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_LONG_RAW

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type LONG RAW. It will compare equal to the DB API type BINARY.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_LONG_NVARCHAR

This constant can be used in output type handlers when fetching NCLOB columns as a string. (Note a type handler is not needed if oracledb.defaults.fetch_lobs is set to False). For IN binds, this constant can be used to create a bind variable in Cursor.var() or via Cursor.setinputsizes(). The DB_TYPE_LONG_NVARCHAR value won’t be shown in query metadata since it is not a database type.

It will compare equal to the DB API type STRING.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_NCHAR

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type NCHAR. It will compare equal to the DB API type STRING.

Note that these are fixed length string values and behave differently from NVARCHAR2.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_NCLOB

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type NCLOB. It will compare equal to the DB API type STRING.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_NUMBER

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type NUMBER. It will compare equal to the DB API type NUMBER.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_NVARCHAR

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type NVARCHAR2. It will compare equal to the DB API type STRING.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_OBJECT

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are an instance of a named SQL or PL/SQL type.

Note

This type is not supported in python-oracledb Thin mode.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_RAW

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type RAW. It will compare equal to the DB API type BINARY.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_ROWID

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type ROWID or UROWID. It will compare equal to the DB API type ROWID.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_TIMESTAMP

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type TIMESTAMP. It will compare equal to the DB API type DATETIME.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_TIMESTAMP_LTZ

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE. It will compare equal to the DB API type DATETIME.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_TIMESTAMP_TZ

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE. It will compare equal to the DB API type DATETIME.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_UROWID

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type UROWID. It will compare equal to the DB API type ROWID.

Note

This type is not supported in python-oracledb Thick mode. See Query Metadata in Thin and Thick Modes.

oracledb.DB_TYPE_VARCHAR

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type VARCHAR2. It will compare equal to the DB API type STRING.

1.2.23. Database Type Synonyms

All of the following constants are deprecated and will be removed in a future version of python-oracledb.

oracledb.BFILE

A synonym for DB_TYPE_BFILE.

Deprecated since cx_Oracle 8.0.

oracledb.BLOB

A synonym for DB_TYPE_BLOB.

Deprecated since cx_Oracle 8.0.

oracledb.BOOLEAN

A synonym for DB_TYPE_BOOLEAN.

Deprecated since cx_Oracle 8.0.

oracledb.CLOB

A synonym for DB_TYPE_CLOB.

Deprecated since cx_Oracle 8.0.

oracledb.CURSOR

A synonym for DB_TYPE_CURSOR.

Deprecated since cx_Oracle 8.0.

oracledb.FIXED_CHAR

A synonym for DB_TYPE_CHAR.

Deprecated since cx_Oracle 8.0.

oracledb.FIXED_NCHAR

A synonym for DB_TYPE_NCHAR.

Deprecated since cx_Oracle 8.0.

oracledb.INTERVAL

A synonym for DB_TYPE_INTERVAL_DS.

Deprecated since cx_Oracle 8.0.

oracledb.LONG_BINARY

A synonym for DB_TYPE_LONG_RAW.

Deprecated since cx_Oracle 8.0.

oracledb.LONG_STRING

A synonym for DB_TYPE_LONG.

Deprecated since cx_Oracle 8.0.

oracledb.NATIVE_FLOAT

A synonym for DB_TYPE_BINARY_DOUBLE.

Deprecated since cx_Oracle 8.0.

oracledb.NATIVE_INT

A synonym for DB_TYPE_BINARY_INTEGER.

Deprecated since cx_Oracle 8.0.

oracledb.NCHAR

A synonym for DB_TYPE_NVARCHAR.

Deprecated since cx_Oracle 8.0.

oracledb.NCLOB

A synonym for DB_TYPE_NCLOB.

Deprecated since cx_Oracle 8.0.

oracledb.OBJECT

A synonym for DB_TYPE_OBJECT.

Deprecated since cx_Oracle 8.0.

oracledb.TIMESTAMP

A synonym for DB_TYPE_TIMESTAMP.

Deprecated since cx_Oracle 8.0.

1.2.24. Other Types

All of these types are extensions to the DB API definition.

oracledb.ApiType

This type object is the Python type of the database API type constants BINARY, DATETIME, NUMBER, ROWID and STRING.

oracledb.DbType

This type object is the Python type of the database type constants.

oracledb.LOB

This type object is the Python type of DB_TYPE_BLOB, DB_TYPE_BFILE, DB_TYPE_CLOB and DB_TYPE_NCLOB data that is returned from cursors.

1.2.25. Two-Phase Commit (TPC) Constants

The constants for the two-phase commit (TPC) functions tpc_begin() and tpc_end() are listed below.

oracledb.TPC_BEGIN_JOIN

Joins an existing TPC transaction.

oracledb.TPC_BEGIN_NEW

Creates a new TPC transaction.

oracledb.TPC_BEGIN_PROMOTE

Promotes a local transaction to a TPC transaction.

oracledb.TPC_BEGIN_RESUME

Resumes an existing TPC transaction.

oracledb.TPC_END_NORMAL

Ends the TPC transaction participation normally.

oracledb.TPC_END_SUSPEND

Suspends the TPC transaction.

1.3. Oracledb Exceptions

See Catching Exceptions for usage information.

exception oracledb.Warning

Exception raised for important warnings and defined by the DB API but not actually used by python-oracledb.

exception oracledb.Error

Exception that is the base class of all other exceptions defined by python-oracledb and is a subclass of the Python StandardError exception (defined in the module exceptions).

exception oracledb.InterfaceError

Exception raised for errors that are related to the database interface rather than the database itself. It is a subclass of Error.

Exception messages of this class will have the prefix DPY and an error number in the range 1000 - 1999.

exception oracledb.DatabaseError

Exception raised for errors that are related to the database. It is a subclass of Error.

Exception messages of this class will have the prefix DPY and an error number in the range 4000 - 4999.

exception oracledb.DataError

Exception raised for errors that are due to problems with the processed data. It is a subclass of DatabaseError.

Exception messages of this class are generated by the database and will have a prefix such as ORA

exception oracledb.OperationalError

Exception raised for errors that are related to the operation of the database but are not necessarily under the control of the programmer. It is a subclass of DatabaseError.

Exception messages of this class will have the prefix DPY and an error number in the range 6000 - 6999.

exception oracledb.IntegrityError

Exception raised when the relational integrity of the database is affected. It is a subclass of DatabaseError.

Exception messages of this class are generated by the database and will have a prefix such as ORA

exception oracledb.InternalError

Exception raised when the database encounters an internal error. It is a subclass of DatabaseError.

Exception messages of this class will have the prefix DPY and an error number in the range 5000 - 5999.

exception oracledb.ProgrammingError

Exception raised for programming errors. It is a subclass of DatabaseError.

Exception messages of this class will have the prefix DPY and an error number in the range 2000 - 2999.

exception oracledb.NotSupportedError

Exception raised when a method or database API was used which is not supported by the database. It is a subclass of DatabaseError.

Exception messages of this class will have the prefix DPY and an error number in the range 3000 - 3999.

1.4. Oracledb._Error Objects

See Catching Exceptions for usage information.

Note

PEP 249 (Python Database API Specification v2.0) says the following about exception values:

[…] The values of these exceptions are not defined. They should give the user a fairly good idea of what went wrong, though. […]

With python-oracledb every exception object has exactly one argument in the args tuple. This argument is an oracledb._Error object which has the following six read-only attributes.

_Error.code

Integer attribute representing the Oracle error number (ORA-XXXXX).

_Error.offset

Integer attribute representing the error offset when applicable.

_Error.full_code

String attribute representing the top-level error prefix and the code that is shown in the _Error.message.

_Error.message

String attribute representing the Oracle message of the error. This message may be localized by the environment of the Oracle connection.

_Error.context

String attribute representing the context in which the exception was raised.

_Error.isrecoverable

Boolean attribute representing whether the error is recoverable or not. This is False in all cases unless both Oracle Database 12.1 (or later) and Oracle Client 12.1 (or later) are being used.